World Rugby has released its player welfare results from last year's World Cup in Japan.
There was a 28% reduction in overall concussion incidence and a 37% reduction in tackle concussion incidence compared to the current elite competition average.
This was the first World Cup to feature the High Tackle Sanction Framework, which is an evidence-based process designed to aid a reduction in concussion risk by changing player behaviour from high-risk upright to lower-risk bent-at-the-waist tackles.
World Rugby said the combination of reduced concussion incidence and players adapting behaviour in response to the law application and zero-tolerance directive on head contact, proved to be a strong driver of positive change.
Yellow card sanctions at the 2019 World Cup increased by 74% and red cards by 138% versus the 2018 elite competition average.